The climate of the island could be characterized as tropical. The central part of the southern half of the island is mountainous with heights more then 2.5 Km. The core regions of the central highlands contain many complex topographical features such as ridges, peaks, plateaus, basins, valleys and escarpments. The remainder of the island is practically flat except for several small hills that rise abruptly in the lowlands. These topographical features strongly affect the spatial patterns of winds, seasonal rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and other climatic elements, particularly during the monsoon season. Rainfall in Sri Lanka has multiple origins. Monsoonal, Convectional and expressional rain accounts for a major share of the annual rainfall.

The mean annual temperature varies from 27°C in the coastal lowlands to 16°C at Nuwara Eliya, in the central highlands (1900m above mean sea level). This relatively unique feature manifesting as sunny beaches to rain forests inland is a tourist attraction.

First inter monsoon season – (March to April)

Southwest monsoon season – (May to September)

Second inter monsoon season – (October to November)

Northeast monsoon season – (December to February)

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